Download A Concise History of the Modern World: 1500 to the Present by William Woodruff PDF

By William Woodruff

This booklet investigates the foremost alterations in global heritage and global economic system in the past years and explains to what volume international forces were liable for shaping either previous and current. Its underlying subject is the fight for strength during which, because the 16th century, the West has prevailed. some of the difficulties of the modern international - together with terrorism - are the legacy of the interval of Western domination. till the increase of the West, and its incomparable influence on each department of human job, the centre of the area has been in Asia. via the 19th century global energy used to be firmly within the arms of the West. America's later upward thrust to global prestige used to be triggered via the 2 global wars. the main fashionable of the Western international locations, the USA is now blamed for the entire excesses of an prior colonial age.

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20 A Concise History of the Modern World to travel abroad. Foreign trade was proscribed or severely restricted. Chinese shipping was confined to coastal waters. When in 1793 the British King George III sent Lord Macartney, his Ambassador Extraordinary, to negotiate improved foreign trading conditions in China (by then the British had replaced the Portuguese as the most important traders in the East), the emperor, seeing no reason why Britain or any other European nation should be granted rights other than those of a tributary state, politely turned him away.

On 14 September, a week after his costly victory at Borodino, where 70,000 soldiers died in one day, Napoleon entered Moscow. Five weeks later, the Russians having refused either to come to terms or to make battle, he began his famous retreat l3 from the burnt-out city. In the following year (1813) he was defeated at Leipzig with the loss of 30,000 men. By then millions of Europeans had lost their lives. Unable to defend Paris, Napoleon surrendered, abdicated the throne unconditionally, and subsequently was exiled in 1814 to Elba in the Mediterranean.

When Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) declared in a papal bull ('Unum Sanctam', 1302) that' subjection to the Roman pontiff is absolutely necessary to salvation', the French king, Philip N (reigned 1285-1314), openly defied him. When a French archbishop followed Boniface as Pope Clement V (1305-16) 23 24 A Concise History of the Modern World he moved his papal residence to Avignon in France. From 1305 to 1377 the papacy remained under French influence. Two popes, one at Avignon the other in Rome, indulged in a papal squabble which ended with each excommunicating the other.

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