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By Amrit Rai

This linguistic examine investigates the starting place of the language Hindi/Hindavi and the advanced reasons which ended in its department into separate tongues - sleek Hindi and glossy Urdu.

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Additional info for A house divided : the origin and development of Hindi/Hindavi

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The full colonialism of foreign-run plantations producing for export never developed. 42 The umbilical connection between the China treaty ports and the international trade of South-East Asia has not been adequately explored. Exceptforthe staple trade carried by the East Indiamen between London and Canton, European and at first even American trade to the Far East the Western experience in India and China, ch. 2. The most detailed study of the growth of the commercial credit network to 1840 is W.

4 By the start of the First World War 92 cities had been formally opened to foreign trade (see below, page 241) and while some of these 'treaty ports' were places of minor importance, a high proportion of China's largest cities were among them. (Some notable exceptions were Sian, Kaifeng, Peking, Taiyuan, Wuhsi, Shaoshing, Nanchang, Chengtu). The treaty ports were the termini of the railway lines which began to appear in the 1890s, and of the steam shipping which spread along China's coast and on the Yangtze and West Rivers.

The recrudescence of this military power, which captured the emperor and besieged Peking in 1449, reconfirmed the dominant agrarian-bureaucratic nature of the Chinese realm. Near 'the Great Wall an armed society developed. '2 Maritime China, for all its precocity, remained a subordinate and even marginal appendage of Continental China. Most indicative was the fact that shipbuilding, seafaring and foreign trade remained of marginal interest to scholars. The sea and sea-craft made no appeal to the Chinese literati.

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