By N. D. B. Connolly
A international extra Concrete argues that black and white landlords, marketers, or even liberal group leaders used tenements and repeated land dispossession to exploit the bad and generate impressive wealth. via a political tradition equipped on genuine property, South Florida’s landlords and householders complicated estate rights and white estate rights, particularly, on the rate of extra inclusive visions of equality. For black humans and lots of in their white allies, makes use of of eminent area helped to harden type and colour lines. but, for plenty of reformers, confiscating yes different types of actual property via eminent area additionally promised to assist increase housing stipulations, to undermine the local impact of strong slumlords, and to open new possibilities for suburban existence for black Floridians.
involved extra with winners and losers than with heroes and villains, A global extra Concrete offers a sober evaluate of cash and tool in Jim Crow America. It exhibits how negotiations among strong genuine property pursuits on either side of the colour line gave racial segregation a extraordinary skill to conform, revealing homeowners’ energy to reshape American towns in ways in which can nonetheless be noticeable and felt today.
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Additional info for A World More Concrete: Real Estate and the Remaking of Jim Crow South Florida
Unlike neighborhood or deed restrictions, which buyers and sellers ratified through voluntary contractual agreements, zoning was a government power that authorized local officials to restrict people’s property rights in observance of state-specified land uses. Zoning would restrict apartments to tracts set aside for multiunit housing, single-family homes to single-family tracts, and so forth. Through racial zoning, municipalities and county governments could ensure that black people lived among blacks, and white people with other whites, regardless of a given landlord’s or homeowner’s desires for potential buyers or tenants.
The North Miami Improvement Association, the Highland Park Improvement Association, the Southside Civic Improvement Association, the Riverside Improvement Association, the Buena Vista Improvement Association: all claimed to be driven by the higher ideals of morality and red-blooded Americanism. In the opinion of South Florida’s white homeowners, white landlords were leading “the Negro” astray, contaminating the colored man’s mind that something was possibly wrong with segregation. ”84 On the question of Jim Crow itself, “There ought not to be any sense of degradation in the matter of segregation”: so argued the Miami Herald editorial page in 1916, echoing the Plessy decision.
They were not strangers to the pricing schemes, intimidation, and cycles of indebtedness that white landowners and merchants employed to sap black people’s labor power and buying power. White landowners could take a black tenant’s entire investment through a well-timed eviction. And, as many suspected happened to Dana Dorsey’s own beachfront property, whites of means and motivation could organize to take black property through any number of dubious strategies. White-on-black profiteering was a national and growing problem.