Download About Language: A Reader for Writers by William Roberts, Gregoire Turgeon PDF

By William Roberts, Gregoire Turgeon

The authors of approximately Language inspire scholars to take advantage of language extra responsibly of their personal writing. greater than 70 examining choices hide a large diversity of matters, together with cultural range, censorship, and gender. robust help is equipped via a gap bankruptcy at the writing technique; annotated desk of contents; bankruptcy introductions; choice headnotes, learn questions and writing assignments; end-of-chapter writing assignments and study actions; and a thesaurus of language and rhetorical phrases.

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It establishes the connection between the speaker and the audience, and it steers how that speech will be received. Your audience needs to know (or to believe, which in rhetoric adds up to the same thing) that you are trust­ worthy, that you have a locus standi to talk on the subject and that you speak in good faith. ’ Perhaps most important of all, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, you will be seeking to persuade your audience that you are one of them: that your interests and their interests are identical in this case or, to be more convincing, in all cases.

In order to vote, you had to be there in person, so those citizens who lived outside town were also, effectively, disenfranchised. In practice, therefore, power was concentrated in the hands of a small metropolitan elite. There were three main bodies that comprised the Athenian government. The first was the Ekkle¯sia, or General Assembly, which consisted of any male citizen who had completed his military training and reached adulthood. This being a direct rather than a representative democracy, membership of the de¯mos, or sovereign body, was by right rather than by election, and every decision was taken on a one-man, one-vote basis.

Athens became the centre of a burgeoning rhetoric industry; and with that came an increasing interest in systematising the art. Gorgias and the other sophists taught and worked haphazardly. There would come a greater man. The Newton of rhetoric – the one person whose work in this department overshadows the whole history of the subject – was, of course, Aristotle. His Rhetoric is a resource I draw on throughout this book, in both its arguments and its structure. Aristotle it was who definitively identified the three branches of oratory – deliberative, judicial and epideictic – and the three persuasive appeals – ethos, pathos and logos – that mingle in them.

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