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By D W Phillipson

During this totally revised and extended variation of his seminal archaeological survey, David Phillipson provides a lucid, totally illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity to the time of eu colonisation, and demonstrates the relevance of archaeological learn to an realizing of Africa today.

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African archaeology

During this totally revised and extended version of his seminal archaeological survey, David Phillipson offers a lucid, absolutely illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity to the time of eu colonisation, and demonstrates the relevance of archaeological learn to an realizing of Africa at the present time.

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The teeth were smaller and more closely resemble those of modern people, as do the bones of the hand. The posture of H. ) boisei and the earlier individuals now classed as P. ) aethiopicus. H. habilis none the less shows substantial variability and some authorities consider that its more massive representatives (such as the famous ‘1470’ skull from Koobi Fora, Kenya) should be regarded as a distinct species, for which the name H. rudolfensis has been proposed (Lieberman et al. 1996). 0 million years ago.

Both are such manifest absurdities that The emergence of humankind in Africa 17 they call into question our whole system of classifying fossils. g. H. J. and J. Deacon 1999), but no adequate remedy has been proposed. As explained, we have only very hazy ideas about the amount of physical variation that should be accommodated within a Linnaean species recognised in the fossil record. g. Foley 1991) to consider the extent to which an ideal classification of this material should reflect perceived similarities rather than differences.

For years the question was fudged by invoking contrasts between tool-using, toolmodifying and tool-making, but the old definition has finally been rendered untenable by the demonstration that a Bonobo chimpanzee can learn to make stone tools, admittedly under laboratory conditions (C. and H. Boesch 1990; Toth et al. 1993). It must also be stressed that the earliest tools are not easily recognisable in the archaeological record: only stone artefacts are generally preserved and, in most circumstances, readily recognised.

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