By Mark Evan Bonds
Beethoven forged a looming shadow over the 19th century. For composers he used to be a version either to emulate and to beat. "You do not know the way it feels," Brahms confided, "when one continually hears this type of gigantic marching in the back of one." Exploring the reaction of 5 composers--Berlioz, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms, and Mahler--to what each one in actual fact observed because the problem of Beethoven's symphonies, Evan Bonds richly complements our realizing of the evolution of the symphony and Beethoven's legacy.
Overt borrowings from Beethoven--for instance, the lyrical subject matter within the Finale of Brahms' First Symphony, so just like the "Ode to pleasure" subject matter in Beethoven's Ninth--have usually been the topic of feedback. Bonds now exhibits us how composers imitate or allude to a Beethoven topic or compositional method accurately with the intention to draw back from it, making a new musical answer. Berlioz's Harold en Italie, Mendelssohn's Lobgesang, Schumann's Fourth Symphony, Brahms' First, and Mahler's Fourth function illuminating examples. dialogue makes a speciality of such center concerns as Beethoven's ideas in formal layout, the function of textual content and voice, fusion of numerous genres, cyclical coherence of hobbies, and the functionality of the symphonic finale.
Bonds lucidly argues that the nice symphonists of the 19th century cleared inventive area for themselves via either confronting and deviating from the practices in their possibly overpowering precursor. His research locations conventional masterpieces in a brand new gentle.
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Additional resources for After Beethoven: The Imperative of Originality in the Symphony
A work's generic designation inevitably conditions the listener's response. It is an open invitation and at times a challenge to the listener to integrate the new work into an established body of comparable works. "We are accustomed to judging objects by the names they bear," Schumann observed in his review of Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique in 18 3 5. "We make certain demands of a 'fantasy,' others of a 'sonata' . . Nothing arouses disagreement and Opposition so quickly as a new form bearing an old name.
473), he appears neither with his own theme nor with a new theme of transcendence; instead, he re-enters within yet another reprise of the Marche de pelerins. 8). He returns under the cover, so to speak, of a string quartet, a medium in which the viola is traditionally brigands. To varying degrees, Beedioven's quotaüons of prcceding themes are also less than literal. SINFONIA 38 ANTI-EROICA Allegro frenetico solo via. I II*! 5 Berlioz, Harold en Italie/iv, m. 46-55: Reminiscence of the Mountaineer's Serenade from the third movement poco ritenuto solo via.
42. See Thomas M. Greene, The Lißht in Troy: Imitation and Discovery in Renaissance Poetry (New Häven: Yale University Press, 1982); Roland Mortier, VOri^inalite: Une nouvelle cate^orie esthetique au sihle des lumieres (Geneva: Droz, 1982); Thomas McFarland, Originality and Imagination (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985), PP- 3-5; Jochen Schmidt, Die Geschichte des Genie-Gedankens in der deutschen Literatur, Philosophie und Politik, 1 vols. (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1985).