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By Lee D. Baker

Within the past due 19th century, if ethnologists within the usa famous African American tradition, they typically perceived it as anything to be triumph over and left at the back of. even as, they have been devoted to salvaging “disappearing” local American tradition by means of curating gadgets, narrating practices, and recording languages. In Anthropology and the Racial Politics of tradition, Lee D. Baker examines theories of race and tradition built by way of American anthropologists through the past due 19th century and early 20th. He investigates the function that ethnologists performed in making a racial politics of tradition within which Indians had a tradition helpful of maintenance and exhibition whereas African americans did not.Baker argues that the idea that of tradition built by way of ethnologists to appreciate American Indian languages and customs within the 19th century shaped the foundation of the anthropological suggestion of race ultimately used to confront “the Negro challenge” within the 20th century. As he explores the consequences of anthropology’s varied methods to African american citizens and local american citizens, and the field’s various yet overlapping theories of race and tradition, Baker delves into the careers of fashionable anthropologists and ethnologists, together with James Mooney Jr., Frederic W. Putnam, Daniel G. Brinton, and Franz Boas. His research takes under consideration not just clinical societies, journals, museums, and universities, but additionally the advance of sociology within the usa, African American and local American activists and intellectuals, philanthropy, the media, and executive entities from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the best courtroom. In Anthropology and the Racial Politics of tradition, Baker tells how anthropology has either spoke back to and contributed to shaping rules approximately race and tradition within the usa, and the way its principles were appropriated (and misappropriated) to wildly various ends.

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Anthropology and the Racial Politics of Culture

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In 1831, General Armstrong’s father, the Reverend Richard Armstrong, graduated from Princeton Theological Seminary and vowed to be among the number of missionaries the board was sending to the South Pacific that year, so he asked the seminary’s principal, Archibald Alexander, to write him a letter of recommendation that testified to his “pure zeal for the glory of God” and his commitment to the “salvation of the heathen” (Engs 1999:2). To serve abroad, however, he had to be married, so he asked Clarissa Chapman, a recent graduate of Westfield Normal School and a teacher at the Pestalozzian Infant School in Brooklyn, New York, to be his bride.

To serve abroad, however, he had to be married, so he asked Clarissa Chapman, a recent graduate of Westfield Normal School and a teacher at the Pestalozzian Infant School in Brooklyn, New York, to be his bride. The two devout Presbyterians were married and set sail the following November on an arduous voyage to Honolulu, where they were stationed for less than a year before they assumed a difficult mission in the Marquesas Islands, which they soon aborted. Upon the Armstrongs’ return to Hawai‘i, the missionary board stationed them and their growing family in Haiku, a small community in the remote upcountry of Maui.

The experiment was seemingly so successful that Research, Reform, and Racial Uplift 41 President Rutherford B. Hayes announced in his State of the Union address the following year that the Department of the Interior would reproduce Armstrong’s Hampton idea for Native Americans. ” He then extolled the virtues of “the experiment of sending a number of Indian children of both sexes to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, in Virginia, to receive an elementary English education and practical instruction in farming and other useful industries, [which] has led to results so promising that it was thought expedient to turn over the cavalry barracks at Carlisle in Pennsylvania to the Interior Department for the establishment of an Indian school on a larger scale” (Hayes 1966:1390).

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