By W. G. Lambert
For a lot of the final 1/2 the 20 th century, W. G. Lambert committed a lot of his examine power and energy to the examine of Babylonian texts facing Mesopotamian principles relating to production, together with specially Enuma Elish. This quantity, which seems to be nearly precisely 2 years after Lambert's loss of life, distills a life of studying by way of the world's most effective professional on those texts. Lambert offers an entire transliteration and translation of the 7 drugs of Enuma Elish, in keeping with the identified exemplars, in addition to insurance of a few different texts that undergo on, or are proposal to endure on, Mesopotamian notions of the foundation of the realm, mankind, and the gods. New variations of seventeen extra "creation stories" are supplied, together with "Enmesharra's Defeat," "Enki and Ninmah," "The Slaying of Labbu,' and "The Theogony of Dunnu."
Lambert can pay certain awareness, after all, to the relationship of the most epic, Enuma Elish, with the increase and position of Marduk within the Babylonian pantheon. He strains the improvement of this deity's starting place and upward push to prominence and elaborates the connection of this article, and the others mentioned, to the non secular and political weather Babylonia.
The quantity contains 70 plates (primarily hand-copies of a few of the exemplars of Enuma Elish) and wide indexes.
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Additional resources for Babylonian Creation Myths
The first is of natural pairs, such as anāku u kâši, and there are altogether 15 out of the 110 of this kind. The theogonic pairs like laḫma u laḫama account for five (I 10, 12; III 4, 68, 125). Two others are divine pairs also: ea u damkina (I 78), enlil u ea (V 8). The phrases “day and night” and “heaven and underworld” account for four: I 109, 130; VI 46, 100. The remaining three are: šulmi u tašmê (IV 34), dumqi u tašmê (V 114), and mê u šamni (VI 98). The second class is the largest and accounts for 79 out of the 110.
A careful correlation of all the examples and the manuscripts in which they occur or not gives the result that it is more commonly present than absent, but the presence or absence is whimsical as to the source of the tablets concerned, Babylonian versus Assyrian, etc. It is therefore futile to speculate on what the author may have done in this matter. Among the orthographic alternatives there are some which, happily, can be dismissed as reflecting only late practices, found in the tablets from all sites.
Nine Babylonian copies of the Epic have this feature (I abi, II d, III abkf, IV a), but only two Assyrian (I M and N [probably parts of the same tablet], VI H). This practice presumes one major line division, which we call the caesura, though unlike the caesura of Classical Greek and Latin poetry it is a break in the sense as well as in word-division. A study of tablets marking the caesura in the way described shows that the scribes have not bothered to put the division at the right point in many cases.