By Stephen Haw
Stephen Haw units out the background of town of Beijing, charting the process its improvement from its early roots sooner than 2000 BC to its modern place as capital of the People’s Republic of China.
Haw, a well-established writer on China, outlines the institution of the earliest towns within the years ahead of a thousand BC, its prestige as local capital in the course of many of the lengthy Zhou dynasty, and its emergence as capital of the full of China after the conquest of the Mongol invaders below Chenghiz Khan and his successors. He considers the city’s assumption of its smooth identify ‘Beijing’ less than the Ming dynasty, conquest via the Manchus and the turbulent years of civil conflict that the cave in of the Qing dynasty in 1911, culminating within the communist revolution and Beijing’s resumption of the function of capital of China in 1949.
Overall, Haw offers a magnificent account of the lengthy and engaging heritage of a urban that's becoming in prominence as an city centre of world significance.
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Extra resources for Beijing - A Concise History (Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia)
There were no more prefectures, just provinces and counties. Later, in 607, the provinces were changed to prefectures. Youzhou became the prefecture of Zhuo. The aim of this change was to reduce the power of local officials so that they were less likely to become a threat to central authority. The governors of prefectures were of lower rank and had less powers than provincial governors. Throughout these changes, the seat of administration continued to be the city of Ji. Sui campaigns against Gaoli The Tujue continued to cause problems in the early years of the Sui dynasty, but soon they became disunited and less of a threat.
In 550, the general controlling Eastern Wei deposed the emperor and placed himself on the throne instead, calling his dynasty Qi (known as Chinese or barbarian? 29 Northern Qi). Something very similar occurred in Western Wei in 557, the new dynasty being called Zhou (known as Northern Zhou). In 577, Northern Zhou attacked and conquered Northern Qi, re-unifying the north of China. Throughout this period the old pattern of local government persisted basically unchanged. Youzhou and the prefecture of Yan were governed from Ji.
Probably more usefully, canals were dug to link the south and north of the empire and make the transport of provisions and troops easier. In 605 a canal was constructed linking Luoyang with Yangzhou, that is, between the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. In 610, another canal joined the Yangtze to the Qiantang River at Hangzhou. More significantly for the northeast, in 608 the Yongji Canal was dug, extending water-borne communications from the Yellow River all the way to the Sanggan River (now the Yongding River) and as far as the city of Ji.