By Konstantinos Ganias
Apart from being commercially and socially major, anchovies and sardines populations occupy an important positions within the oceans’ ecosystems. Low within the nutrients chain, clupeoids have a tendency in the direction of abundance, as though their goal in lifestyles used to be to be eaten and gas the higher degrees of marine trophic chains. the current booklet covers a extensive spectrum of subject matters at the biology (sytematics, phylogeography, replica, feeding) and ecology (habitat characterization, recruitment variability) of anchovies and sardines. It additionally places jointly vital info at the country in their fisheries, exploitation and management.
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Additional info for Biology and Ecology of Sardines and Anchovies
2013)]. Type genus: Dorosoma Rafinesque 1820. Content: Dorosoma, Hilsa, Ethmalosa, Tenualosa, Gudusia, Gonialosa, Konosirus, Clupanodon, Nematalosa, Anodontostoma, Herklotsichthys, Opisthonema, Harengula, Amblygaster, Sardinella, Escualosa, Rhinosardinia, Pellonula, Odaxothrissa, Nannothrissa, Microthrissa, Potamothrissa, Stolothrissa, Limnothrissa, Sierrathrissa, Thrattidion, Laeviscutella, Congothrissa, Lile and Platanichthys (ad interim). 6. contd. 6. contd.... 6. contd. 6. contd.... 7. Simplified clupeoid family-level phylogenetic tree (left side) indicating molecular (white bars) and morphological (black bars) synapomorphies.
Along the coast of Azerbaijan, Caspian Sea. Ices J. Mar. Sci. 63: 1665–1673. Miyashita, T. 2010. Unique occipital articulation with the first vertebra found in pristigasterids, chirocentrids, and clupeids (Teleostei: Clupeiformes: Clupeoidei). Ichthyol. Res. 57: 121–132. L. S. Attia. 2005. A new clupeid fish (Clupeomorpha) from the oligocene of Fayum, Egypt, with notes on some other fossil clupeomorphs. J. Vert. Paleont. 25: 300–308. I. Eytan, A. Dornburg, G. A. P. C. Wainwright, M. L. Smith.
The oldest member of the Dussumieriidae with this character is an undescribed taxon known from the Eocene (52 millions yr ago, MYA) of the Monte Bolca Formation in Italy (Grande 1985). The family Pristigasteridae (longfin herrings) includes nine genera and about 40 species distributed worldwide in tropical waters (Eschmeyer 2013). Some pristigasterids are of significant local economic value (Blaber et al. 1998, Zhang et al. 2009). At least three unique morphological characters support the monophyly of the living Pristigasteridae: 1) “Predorsal bones oriented either vertically or inclined anterodorsally”, 2) “loss of interlobar notch in third hypural of caudal skeleton” and 3) “prominent basibranchial dentition, including separate toothplates fused with B2 and one or more pairs of hypobranchials” (Nelson 1967, p.